"Given that, as a private person, the Pontiff could indeed become a public, notorious, and obstinate heretic … he would fall by the very fact of heresy from his papal power, in so far as he would have been removed from within the Church’s body on his own accord by having become an unbeliever. In that case, only a Council [the Church] would have the right to declare his see vacant so that the usual electors could safely proceed to an election." (Hervé. Manuale Theologiae Dogmaticae (1952) I.500, p. 495

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